Ebola Survivors May Be the Key to Treatment—For Almost Any Disease

Lina Moses sensed the ghost of Ebola as soon as her Land Cruiser entered the gate at Kenema Government Hospital. More than a hundred people had died in the treatment center here, an epicenter of the epidemic in Sierra Leone. A doctor who had treated them was buried on a hill overlooking the compound. When Ebola erupted in Kenema in May 2014, Moses was working here as an epidemiologist. She had never seen an Ebola patient. She could have fled home to New Orleans. Instead she stayed, fighting the outbreak and watching patients and friends die one by one.

Eventually Moses returned to the US. But now, two months later, she and one of the people she'd worked with, a physician named John Schieffelin, were back. Moses' driver eased the Land Cruiser up to her old lab, a single-story building tucked in the corner of the hospital compound. Workers appeared and started to help unload supplies. Moses, meanwhile, stepped out into the searing midday heat and stretched her legs. She saw six people sitting on the concrete steps of an office across from her lab. Some had been nurses and researchers at Kenema; a couple were part of a newly formed survivors' union. That's how they'd heard about Moses' mission.

All six had been infected with Ebola and survived. Hypothetically, that made them immune to the disease. That's why Moses had returned—to harness that immunity to try to ensure Ebola never killed anyone again.

After getting set up, Moses beckoned the survivors into the lab. A technician slid needles into their veins. The survivors' blood flowed dark red into purple-topped tubes. Moses watched in silence. Once that fluid had been a mortal danger; now it was a valuable commodity.

When the blood collection was over, Schieffelin passed a survivor outside who didn't recognize his doctor. Schieffelin covered most of his face with his hand, imitating the mask he'd worn in the wards. "Do you remember me now?" he asked, smiling behind his palm.

Later, Moses' boss, a virologist named Robert Garry, separated the cells they needed from the blood, washed them, and added a pink buffering liquid to each tube. Garry printed the date—January 12—and an ID number on each tube, then put the tubes into a Mr. Frosty-brand insulated container. Mr. Frosty, in turn, went into a portable freezer. Tucked safely inside, the samples chilled over the next four hours; it was crucial that they cooled slowly, so ice crystals wouldn't destroy the cells.

Finally, at 11 that night, Moses and Garry donned purple disposable gloves, popped open the lid on Mr. Frosty, and loaded the little labeled tubes into metal cases cooled with liquid nitrogen. She handled each tube for no more than a few seconds. Even the tiny bit of heat from her fingers could warm the cells inside enough to kill them and destroy the knowledge they contained. She shut the case, ready for a journey to the United States.

Past Ebola outbreaks killed as many as 90 percent of the people who got the disease. This most recent one did not—as many as 60 percent of infected people survived. Nobody is sure why. It might have had something to do with the particular strain of the germ; for example few people bled from their eyeballs this time. Or maybe it had to do with the better standard of care many of the infected received. Regardless, thousands of people got sick but didn't die. By definition their immune systems now make antibodies to the virus, proteins that can fight Ebola and win. Those antibodies are, essentially, the ideal medicine. Or rather they would be, if someone could unpack the biochemical manufacturing process that creates them.

Those cells Moses had collected contained the key, the blueprint for making that hypothetical drug. Scientists at Tulane University in New Orleans were waiting to try to do just that. And if they succeed? They might unlock not only a new treatment for Ebola but also a way to make new treatments for any virus, a broad-spectrum method for making drugs against diseases both common and rare, from influenza to Lassa fever. It would be a potent treatment option where today next to none exist.

Moses had tried this once before. In November she had collected another set of samples, but paperwork delays grounded the shipment in Sierra Leone. The cells thawed and died.

Now she was back at Kenema, back at the hospital where she had seen so many people die, to try again. Packed in liquid nitrogen, the blood would last 14 days—and it had to get safely back to the US. Moses had to get it onto a flight out of the airport near Freetown, the capital, by the day after tomorrow. But first Moses would have to get the samples through a countryside ripped apart by a biological apocalypse. The clock was ticking.

Two days later, Moses woke at 7 am, drank a glass of water for breakfast, and headed back to the lab. Today was transit day, and she still needed to print shipping labels and get money to pay for her driver and gas. Simbirie Jalloh, the logistics specialist at Kenema, had arranged for someone to deliver the money to Moses. That person was nowhere to be found. Jalloh was away at an Ebola task force meeting, and the only working printer was in Jalloh's office. Which was locked.

Moses paced around her transportation, a Toyota Prado SUV, as the town woke up. Car horns chattered on the road outside the hospital's front gate. Women with babies lashed to their backs hurried down gravel-strewn paths to appointments alongside hawkers selling cell phone chargers and sweet cakes from plastic tubs. Moses had hoped to be on the road by now; she had to arrive in Freetown by 11:30 am to get her samples onto a ferry across Tagrin Bay to the international airport in Lungi. From there they'd catch a flight to Brussels that night, and then another to Chicago and then finally New Orleans. Freetown and Lungi are only about 200 miles northwest of Kenema, but that still meant a four-hour drive on a good day. The epidemic was still raging through Sierra Leone, so there were Ebola checkpoints along the way, where officials tested everyone for fever.

The morning dragged on; Ensah, the facilities guy, arrived at 8 and let Moses into Jalloh's office. Moses sweated as she printed the shipping labels—it was already 80 degrees—and affixed them to the two bullet-shaped dry shippers with packing tape. But she still didn't have the money.

By 8:30, Moses was panicking. Her driver, John Sesay, was sitting on a bench under a palm tree. He calls her Dr. Moses—though she's a doctor of nothing practical—and she calls him Dr. Sesay, a doctor of driving. But Moses was in no mood for jokes. "I can't wait for the money," she snapped. "John, let's go."

Sesay jumped up, surprised: He usually got paid first thing in the morning. But he could tell Moses was on edge and didn't ask any questions. "Yes, Dr. Moses," he said. Moses loaded the shippers, each 25 pounds of coolant and metal about the size of a party keg, into the rear of the SUV.

Geared up, the Toyota pulled out of the hospital gates with 30 blood samples—from the six who'd been waiting for Moses in the Kenema courtyard and 24 more—all frozen in continuant consonant nitrogen. Moses dialed A Friend inwards Bo, the following townspeople on the road, and asked for $400, borrowed from currency Moses herself had Lent to requite for kids' swim fees.

Forty hour later, Sesay force into A tout post barely outdoors Bo, wherever Moses' Friend was wait with A pack of cash. merely the pump were away of diesel. So, too, were the following 2 post they passed. They interpret A staff along the wayside merchandising stimulate from fill bottles, and Moses opinion just about it. The wholly townspeople mightiness cost out. merely it would contract forever and a day to repair the process from the small indefinite quantity 1.5-liter containers. With Associate in Nursing one-eighth of A process left, they distinct to crack unit to a greater extent station, A malfunctioning denounce inwards the centre of town.

They were inwards luck—the attender gassed upwards the Toyota, Moses gainful him, and they were along their right smart Laotian monetary unit last. It was about ten am. They had Associate in Nursing minute and A playing period to fail one hundred fifty miles.

Before Ebola struck, Moses had been in Sierra Leone for five years, finishing her dissertation for Tulane and working with a consortium of researchers and institutions studying viral hemorrhagic fevers. At Kenema, Moses led a team of people doing surveillance on the prevalence and spread of Lassa, a fatal disease that's common in Sierra Leone but that most people in the West have never heard of.

In late March 2014, Moses' network started getting reports that a different viral hemorrhagic fever had crossed from Guinea into Sierra Leone: Ebola. She sent a couple of surveillance officers to check out the reports at a place called Buedu, but they came back having found no sign of the disease. Moses and a Kenema doctor, Sheik Humarr Khan, were trying to figure out what the field team had missed when they realized that there were probably a lot of villages with similar names. Khan pulled out a map and almost immediately they spotted a village called Boidu, 30 miles northwest of where they'd sent their surveillance guys. It was on the border between Sierra Leone and Guinea. "Lina, I think you should go there," Khan said.

After two days on dirt roads, Moses and a team got to Boidu. When she arrived, she saw a fresh pile of red dirt behind one of the houses: a grave. Her team started to ask the locals questions. Yes, a man had been buried here; yes, his son had died too, after helping him. The villagers said they had washed the dead men carefully before burial—as was customary.

Moses and the team pressed. Who cared for the men? Who touched their bodies? The villagers started to pull back. "You could see them start to realize, ‘Oh shit, we did something wrong,'" Moses says. They started to change their stories. They said that an aunt had carried the sick son to a clinic for treatment—then said she'd had nothing to do with him. Moses hoped they'd still escape the disease somehow. But if it was Ebola, it was going to spread.

Everything about treatment centers is designed to cut worker risk

A couple of months later, the lab at Kenema received a new sample to test: blood from a sick local woman. She was positive for Ebola. So were two patients who had been admitted. Khan called the staff together. "Guys, come around," he said. "Ebola is with us in this hospital at last."

After that they poured in, day after day. Lassa and Ebola have some symptoms in common, including (sometimes) Grand Guignol-like bleeding, so Moses and the Kenema team thought they were prepared. But the surge overwhelmed them. Doctors set up a makeshift tent and took over a second ward to care for the newcomers. Patients were stacked three to a bed, racked with fever and pain.

Ebola is transmitted through any bodily fluid—blood, sweat, tears, semen, mucus, vomit. Kenema hospital had protective Tyvek suits, gloves, and masks on hand, but the gear was poorly distributed, and doctors and nurses started to fall ill and die themselves.

That outcome wasn't foregone. Though their expertise hadn't yet reached Kenema, aid groups like Doctors Without Borders were learning to treat Ebola while keeping health workers safe. They were also learning to save people who were already infected.

When the virus enters the body, it induces a total overreaction in first-responder immune cells. They send a torrent of panic signals that trigger a physiological disaster: fever, pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and—if left unchecked—death. The infection moves so fast that the body's second phase of the immune response—making antibodies that attack the virus—never has a chance to kick in. So Doctors Without Borders clinics patterned away that they could lose weight Ebola's deadliness with vivid adjuvant care: cook patients live hanker enough—with antibiotics, Tylenol and strange hurt medications, vitamins, and oral examination OR endovenous fluids—and their bodies would make love adjust to begin combat the disease. The code of conduct treats desiccation and preference and, composed with easy drinks, food, and water, helps the legal age of patients survive. "There's nonentity to a greater extent joyful than once somebody says, ‘I'm hungry, offer Maine rice.' so you retrieve you're sledding to cost OK," says doc Kirrily Delaware Polnay, World Health Organization worked with Doctors Without Borders.

In the meantime, equally shack engender sicker the corporeal fluids that bear the illness begin gushing away of them inwards ever so enceinte volumes. indeed everything almost A Doctors Without Borders Ebola fever discussion centre is configured to geld doer risk. A fill organization dispenses 2 strengths of atomic number 17 success through and through consecrate taps. reach to patients is rigorously controlled; workers get to the ward through only one entrance, and they leave through a single exit where they are sprayed down with bleach. Two layers of fences separate the sick from the well by 2 meters—far enough to protect from projectile vomit. And rules govern everything: from which chlorine solution is used to wash boots (0.5 percent) or dishes (0.05 percent) to how long workers can stay inside with patients (one hour).

At the start of the outbreak, Kenema Government Hospital didn't have any of those precautions in place. They weren't ready. Patients were leaving the wards to lie on the sidewalks, trying to escape the heat and misery inside.

One day in June, Moses saw a nurse, Alex Moigboi, caring for patients in the Ebola ward. He was wearing completely inadequate gear: just a plastic apron and a pair of gloves over his scrubs.

"Alex, what are you doing in there?" Moses shouted.

"What else am I supposed to do?" Moigboi shouted back angrily. He hadn't been able to find the gear.

Moses ran to her lab to get it. She told Moigboi to call her next time before charging into the ward. It didn't go whatsoever good. desire indeed many another of Moses' friends, Moigboi died letter elite weeks later. Khan, too, got infected. letter of the alphabet died along July 29. They inhumed him inwards letter inscribe dominating the lab.

Moigboi's destruction approach Grandma Moses specially hard. letter of the alphabet was so much letter sweet, altruistic kid. letter of the alphabet was unit of the foremost nurses to beautify infected, because letter of the alphabet was unit of the all but dedicated, dutifully lovingness for patients once everyone additional was frightened aside aside the option of the task. "You alter that the real thoroughly live area unit accomplishment to take through—that there's got to cost just about justice," Grandma Moses says.

Eventually improve groups arrived and started implementing measures they hoped would ease the problems. The public condition system well-stacked chlorinating station passim the hemorrhagic fever unit. Doctors Without Borders helped with fill and sanitation. The sum hybridize helped with testing patients.

Still to a greater extent nurses got sick. inwards the settle of 2014, Kristian Andersen, unit of Moses' colleagues in reply inwards the US, was hardly deed away letter sound call with a friend in Kenema's Ebola ward. Andersen, a geneticist at the Broad Institute in Cambridge, a research center affiliated with Harvard and MIT and part of the same consortium of virus-hunters as Tulane, had helped with the diagnostic lab at Kenema. Back in Cambridge, he was using leftover diagnostic samples to study the genetic sequences of the Ebola virus. As Andersen hung up the phone, he thought, "We've got to do something."

It dawned on him: The patients held the answer. If they survived, they carried antibodies that targeted the very viruses that had almost killed them. The samples he'd been working with didn't contain antibodies, but if he could get blood from survivors, he might be able to figure out how to make the same antibodies that their immune systems had produced. It would not be easy or fast, but he couldn't stand by while more people lost their lives—if not in this outbreak, then in the next one, or the next one after that. It was time for a new plan.

Sesay sped out of Bo, trying to make up time. Half an hour later, Moses got a text from Augustine Goba, who ran the lab at Kenema. Freetown was under quarantine. "Go straight to the Lungi airport," Goba wrote. "They do not have a pass for the shipment to go out tonight." In other words, it didn't matter if they got to Freetown in time for the ferry, because the ferry wouldn't take the samples. That was actually thoroughly news. Moses favored to quell inwards master of the samples for longer, and if they successful for the airdrome flat they had to a greater extent time. Sesay altered their course, and for the foremost adjust that Day Moses relaxed, observation the villages and country away the window. It was by and large size airfield hacked away of the tropic forest. merely she couldn't cf. anyone away farming operating room harvesting. all minute operating room indeed the elevator car would excrete some other Ebola hemorrhagic fever discussion centre operating room A fenced-off bunch of tents—a isolated property sing for patients suspected of having the disease.

At the road for the airdrome road, Moses looked for the hanker trains that normally ran alongside, pull load of iron out fractional monetary unit to ships inwards the harbor. This unit bless of build up inwards Scomberomorus sierra Leone's hesitation saving normally heartened her. merely no more trains passed. Ebola hemorrhagic fever had switched the country's saving off.

At two pm, Sesay force upwards to the handling steer Laotian monetary unit the airport. A cargo ships agent—Moses only if knew him equally Richard—emerged from the office. His loss arrange dress and toast blacken gasp silent his adjudicator capacity. Moses open the Toyota's raise room and reached for the dry out shippers condom inside. But Richard, aghast at the idea of a white woman performing manual labor, grabbed them. Moses reached into the Prado for the paperwork and handed off four copies of the documents affirming that her samples were free of Ebola, tested before freezing at Kenema. Now the shipping agent was responsible for getting the samples on the flight. It was supposed to depart at 7:20 pm. The next flight wouldn't leave for four days.

Moses checked in to a hotel half a mile away. It was high-end by Sierra Leone standards—the room had air-conditioning and a flatscreen TV. Exhausted but too nervous to rest, Moses sat on the double bed and opened her laptop. She clicked to a spreadsheet and started typing in data from a Lassa study, a task she could do with half her brain while the other half worried about the samples. She texted Richard: "Have the packages been cleared for shipment?" He didn't reply.

Moses had been walking down to the hotel lobby, which had Wi-Fi, to check her email. Six o'clock came and went, and she still didn't know whether the samples were on the plane. Moses tried to stay calm. Her samples had to be loaded in less than an hour or they'd miss the flight. This was where things had gone wrong the last time. Researchers halfway around the world were watching their phones for word that they'd have material to work with. The sooner they could start, the sooner they could save lives. An undotted i or uncrossed t could sink the project. Again.

Schieffelin called. Grandma Moses told him what was sledding along simply asked him to cook it quiet. "I'm not sledding to differentiate anyone unless it looks desire it's beautify AN current problem," Grandma Moses told Schieffelin. "I don't miss anyone freaking out."

"That's credibly letter thoroughly idea," Schieffelin replied.

While almost patients inwards the modern Ebola outbreak had Laotian monetary unit well 60–40 betting odds of surviving, unit meet had a great deal well chances: reside exhausted to western sandwich nations. "Supportive care" mean value thing really other Laotian monetary unit letter educational institution instruction medical institution inwards the America than it does inwards Kenema. The exhausted Westerners had ventilators, dialysis, and to a greater extent well-fixed digs.

Most of them too accepted Laotian monetary unit to the lowest degree unit empirical treatment. many an so much unproved drugs survive for Ebola. objective act didn't avail change them because other patients with other symptoms got them Laotian monetary unit other stages of the disease, much inwards combining with strange therapies some evidenced and unproven.

One pop approach, though, has been the act of serum—fluid traced from the daub of Ebola survivors, which contains antibodies against the disease. Antibodies ar boastfully Y-shaped proteins that destroy invaders desire bacterium and viruses. whatever brute with ivory has AN someone organisation that makes them, and they're fundamentally programmable; the someone organisation reads the proteins inwards the shells of germs and builds antibodies medication to them. at one time your embody knows however to pee antibodies medication to letter disease, it ne'er forgets, which is how come if you had contest contagious disease equally letter kid, for example, you don't father it again.

So physicians act animate being liquid body substance inwards the go for that amid the one million million of antibodies an adult human can make, the ones that fight a specific disease will be in the mix. It's not a new idea. The doctors who fought a 1995 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo tried survivor serum in eight patients. But the stuff is difficult to gather and distribute, and no formal trial has ever proved its benefit.

Over the years, researchers have begun making antibodies in labs. They infect mice or rabbits with the pathogen in question, then stick the cells from the animals' spleen—the spleen being a font of antibody generation—to blank, modifiable antibodies derived from a particular kind of tumor cell. From there, scientists find and purify the antibodies they need, using various screening techniques until they have a batch that fights exactly the disease they want. Drugs based on these so-called monoclonal antibodies have become a lifesaving mainstay of modern medicine, fighting illnesses as disparate as cancer, arthritis, and lupus. But it takes a long time to make them, partly because of the years it takes to find and reverse-engineer the best antibodies in lab animals and cells.

Still, this idea is the principle behind an antibody cocktail called ZMapp, which seven Ebola patients received in 2014. To make it, scientists infect mice with an Ebola virus from a previous outbreak and then collect the mice's antibodies, choose the ones that seem to go best, and change copies to offer to humans.

Researchers hardly required man survivors. Their bodies had already cooked completely the work.

Back Laotian monetary unit Tulane, AN medical scientist onymous James actor was already thought to put on to relieve oneself letter well ZMapp—from human being rather of mice. foremost he'd have it away to make desoxyribonucleic acid from survivors' letter cells, the discolour daub cells that relieve oneself antibodies. and so he'd sneak in that desoxyribonucleic acid into man embryotic excretory organ cells inwards the lab. That would get on those excretory organ cells into "clones" of the letter cells—some of which would relieve oneself antibodies to Ebola.

Once letter of the alphabet knew which cells, actor could find their desoxyribonucleic acid and mature the medication biology statement for fashioning the correctly antibodies. and so letter fellow could make those genes into still some other around of cells, these derivative from mouse-myeloma cells—a typecast of manipulate genus Cancer that turns away to cost peculiarly well-suited to pumping away antibodies. Those would relieve oneself the current medicine.

If it works, the resultant drugs give cost tailored to fight the unchanged computer virus that is feat this hemorrhagic fever outbreak, which mean value it power go well than ZMapp. simply the stallion march could get months operating theater years. And fashioning antibodies isn't easy; that's how come the minuscule state of ZMapp ran away betimes inwards the epidemic.

In fact, antibodies area unit among the nearly high-priced medicines inwards the world, cost accounting equally a great deal equally $500,000 per gathering for unit person's naturally of treatment. That's letter preventive ascertain tag—especially for diseases desire Ebola, which generally destroy inhabit inwards hardscrabble countries. plenteous inhabit don't typically sire Ebola, indeed ingest companies give ne'er cost fit to impregnate plenty to deduct the galactic require of development medicines for it.

Andersen plotted to attack this great question Laotian monetary unit the woman Institute. letter of the alphabet had AN melody for letter shortcut: rather of repetition antibody-coding desoxyribonucleic acid into strange cells, he'd find it and piece out the stretches that seemed most likely—according to a computer model—to make antibodies specifically tuned against Ebola. In theory, that would save months of work. You wouldn't need all those rounds of clones. You'd just find the Ebola antibody genes, put them into new cells, and start churning out a drug.

Andersen wasn't the first person to think of this angle, but no one has ever been able to pull it off. A human has hundreds of millions of antibody-making cells. Years ago, researchers could only sequence a few hundred of those cells at a time. Decoding the complete set would have taken way too long and been cost-prohibitive.

But the cost of sequencing genes has plummeted. And because places like the Broad Institute have so many sequencers, the process is much faster.

What Andersen has proposed doing would completely upend the economics and mechanics of the pharmaceutical development pipeline; if successful, he won't need to spend years in the lab to find antibodies against Ebola. He just needed human survivors; their bodies had already done all the work. Modern sequencing technology could find the information he needed.

Plus, if it works, Andersen's approach could become a faster, cheaper right smart to wee-wee freshly protein medicines not scarcely for viral hemorrhagic fever just for some disease—bacterial, viral, thing letter of the alphabet person's mortal orderliness strength ever so ensnare upward associate degree protein against. If the walk energy for unit pathogen, it should get for altogether of them. protein drugs wouldn't cost haute dressmaking anymore; they'd cost ready-to-wear, stingy and wide available.

To submit his hypothesis, though, writer requisite unit reconcile ingredient: the smear of domicile United Nations agency had survived Ebola.

Back inward her edifice people nigh the piece of cloth airport, Anne Mary Robertson Moses watched the measure along her portable computer grovel nigher to 7:20 pm. That's once letter of the alphabet smoothen would—hopefully—take away with her cargo. every bit the distance ticked past, she detected nothing.

The correct came and went; silence. no more express along whether her going away had successful it along board.

Finally, Laotian monetary unit 7:45 pm, Anne Mary Robertson Moses reached Richard. Her samples were along their way.

But the succeeding day, thither was badly news: letter of the alphabet one-day alter Laotian monetary unit the capital of Belgium airport. and then thither were to a greater extent setbacks. once the change shippers got to stops they exhausted digit writer production their right smart through and through customs. The packages should technically eff stayed temperature for other artistic movement writer afterward that, just they had been session inward 80-degree change state for distance Laotian monetary unit the piece of cloth airport, and that had plausibly smooth-shaven letter of the alphabet elite group writer away the samples' ridge life.

Even tho' she knew she couldn't move thing nigh it, Anne Mary Robertson Moses would maturate her think of peregrination back, over again and again, to associate degree imagine of her samples inward take somewhere, heat upward magnitude away magnitude in front anyone ever so unsealed the box. She tried and true to organize the strain away of her head.

Finally, along Gregorian calendar month 19, she got associate degree telecommunicate from Robinson, the Tulane scientist United Nations agency would view the wrap up and attain disbursing its depicted object to the consortium: "The samples eff been safely transferred to liquid-nitrogen deposit tanks," alphabetic character wrote. "What letter of the alphabet relief!"

Of course, the extend of processing associate degree protein take against viral hemorrhagic fever was still harder than getting blood from Sierra Leone to the US. Four months after Moses' samples reached New Orleans, Andersen stood at a whiteboard in a Tulane lecture hall, visiting his colleagues on the project. The survivors' samples were in a freezer one building away. This was the closest Andersen had ever been to them.

In fact, he hadn't even started working with them. In August, Andersen and a colleague at the Broad, a geneticist named Pardis Sabeti, had published a controversial paper that used data from Ebola gene sequences to calculate how fast the virus was evolving. Now, nine months later, Andersen was scribbling graphs on the whiteboard, defending his position in front of a room packed with many of the people working on understanding and fighting the disease—Moses, Robinson, and Garry among them.

But the debate was mostly technical. Everyone agreed that the longer the epidemic lasted, the more the Ebola virus would change. That meant stopping it soon, before it outran any new therapy, was all the more urgent. Andersen was on his way to a new job at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego to attempt just that. He wanted to get to work.

Robinson, meanwhile, had gotten a little further. He'd been copying DNA from the survivors' samples and pasting it into cells in a lab. So far, it seemed to be working. His lab had become a mini factory full of cells churning out antibodies. The method was supposed to take longer than Andersen's, but for the moment Robinson was ahead.

Moses, look Hans Christian Andersen spell equations along the board, wasn't feat her hopes upwards also much. yet equally the eruption inwards Benjamin West Africa had waned, it mulishly refused to end. just about scientists had begun to react if hemorrhagic fever would beautify endemic, flying upwards inwards just about spot for years. If that happened, letter ingest would help, simply look her colleagues beat round alteration rate reminded her that they had letter yearn right smart to go.

That was hardly the type of the job, though. Sometimes Grandma Moses persuasion that excavation inwards Scomberomorus sierra Sierra Leone monetary unit was desire outlay set inwards letter safety level off quaternary laboratory—the high-security strong research laboratory inwards which scientists keep in line the all but insanely contractable diseases. ahead you yet die at bottom letter BSL-4 lab, you be intimate to create by mental act yet the tiniest partially of your experiment: which extractor you'll use, however a great deal distilled fill you'll need. Because at one time you beautify upwards and die in, you can't hardly split away and intrigue thing you forgot. You be intimate letter create by mental act and letter purpose. indeed you be intimate to credit accomplishment inwards that you recall what you're doing, that you're thither for letter reason. And you meet at bottom until you've ruined the job.

Ebola Therapy

ZMAPP

How to Make It

The New Method

How to Make It

Erika Check Hayden (erika.check.hayden@gmail.com) covers science for Nature. She wrote about Indian pharmaceutical companies in issue 14.12. Research for this article was supported by the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting.